4.0 cad drawing standards
4.1 Layer Standards
Maintaining a layering standard for CAD drawings is essential for ensuring consistency and integrity with
all projects. The KENNEDY layering standards must be adhered to.
The KENNEDY layer standards are based on the AIA standards but are simplified and modified to suit.
Always remember that less layers is better.
Adding new layers is discouraged but it is sometimes necessary to do so. If new layers are needed, they
should be both brief and descriptive so all CAD users will understand the reason for the layer(s). Newly
added layers must also be consistent throughout all the drawings for that particular project.
To update any drawing with the standard KENNEDY layers, please reload the Kennedy.LAS file located
as per below.
Type Layerstate manager.
You must reconcile layers when prompted
4.2 Annotative properties
Annotative properties are a feature provided in releases of AutoCAD 2007 and up. This object property
allows typically annotation-type objects (such as text) to automatically display to the proper size when the
intended drawing scale is set. Annotative properties can be applied to text, dimensions, leaders, hatches,
blocks and attributes. The benefit to annotative properties is that a single object can be used at multiple
scales, therefore, the need for multiple objects at different sizes on different layers is eliminated under the
previous non-annotative, traditional or classic scaling method.
The following layers have been created to separate the objects with annotative properties:
Any objects with annotative properties will display the annotative scale symbol when you
hover/preview the objects
4.3 Linetype Standards
To keep drawings consistent, Kennedy uses a particular set of linetypes. Appendix-B illustrates the
standard linetypes used at KENNEDY that are in addition to the standard AutoCAD default linetypes.
The appearance of linetypes on the screen will depend on the current scale of the drawing, and whether
the drawing is currently in model-space, paper-space or if annotative properties are in effect.
Drawings setup using annotative properties will display linetypes correctly and accurately in model space
and paper space. See the following section regarding Annotative properties for more information.
4.4 lineweight and color standards
The standard KENNEDY lineweights relate to the layer and the colour of the entities in the drawings. The
standard colours of the layering system will correspond to the lineweight of all entities. It is therefore
essential for all entities to have “ByLayer” linetype and “ByLayer” colour properties; avoid forcing colours
to any objects. Refer to Appendix-C for an illustration of the standard lineweights and a sample output of
4.5 Text Standards
KENNEDY text styles have been created with a pre-defined text height and font as per office standards.
The following text styles are:
Using Annotative properties, text sizes are defined by their plotted sizes and the display is automated by
the Annotation Scale. See the following section regarding Annotative properties for more information.
Please refrain from creating using any other text styles for production drawings.
4.6 M-Leader Standards
4.7 Dimensioning Standards
Annotative properties can also be applied to dimensions. The Kennedy standard dimension style has
been pre-defined and is annotative so the user should never have to adjust any dimension style settings.
The dimension style name is:
4.8 Annotative Symbols and Blocks
block is usually used for notation and explanatory information such as reference bubbles and arrows.
These symbols are the Kennedy standard and match the coordinating symbols in Revit. This ensures that
all drawings leaving the office are visually similar and offer the same degree of clarity. Please do not
deviate from the standards. These blocks are loaded into the drawing template and can also be found in:
Please see attached Appendix E for all annotative blocks and symbols. If you would like a Kennedy
4.9 Graphic Symbol Library
This type of block consists of standard graphic type symbols such as plumbing fixtures and furniture.
Please use the Autocad built in tool palette. (Type TP if they do not appear in the ribbon) The tool palette
blocks are dependent on whether the drawing is metric or imperial and have been divided into metric or
4.10 Rules of X-refs
You can attach a drawing to the current drawing as a referenced drawing. Attached xrefs are links to the
model space of a specified drawing file. Changes made to the referenced drawing are automatically
reflected in the current drawing when it's opened or if the xref is reloaded. Attached xrefs do not
significantly increase the size of your current drawing.
The saved path used to locate the xref can be a relative (partially specified) path, the full path, or no path.
4.11 Specify a Full (Absolute) Path
A full path is a fully specified hierarchy of folders that locates the file reference. A full path includes a local
hard drive letter, a URL to a website, or a network server drive letter.
4.12 Specify a Relative Path
Specify a relative path
Relative paths are partially specified folder paths that assume the current drive letter or the folder of the
host drawing. This is the most flexible option, and enables you to move a set of drawings from your
current drive to a different drive that uses the same folder structure.
The default path type is relative. Please use the relative path. Do not use full path. Within each project
create a folder called xrefs. This folder needs to have all xrefs for the project within it. Do no xref
drawings from another project in your current drawings file. Remember
4.13 Attached X-refs
Attached means it becomes a part of your drawing. Attached xrefs, when referenced into a drawing, will
include nested xrefs, which means if drawing "A" is referenced into your drawing and it has nested xrefs
"B" and "C" in it, drawings "B" and "C" will be attached to the parent drawing along with drawing "A."
4.14 Overlay X-refs
An overlaid xref does not load or bring with it any nested xrefs. For example, if you xref "A" into your
parent drawing, which contains a nested xref, drawing "B", only drawing "A" will be referenced in. Drawing
"B" will not be loaded into the parent drawing because it is a nested xref.
A good xref example is: gridbubbles, gridlines with grid dimensions. This drawing is a “master” drawing
that can be inserted into multiple files. If a change occurs in the master xref it will be reflected in all
drawings. You can use annotative text, dimensions and symbols to create an xref file that works for all
scale drawings. You would want this xref to be an attachment as it is permanent in the drawing file.
When you attach an xref, follow these guidelines:
- Attach all xrefs at a 0,0,0 origin.
- Choose attach or overlay based on the permanence of the drawings file
- Always choose relative path and keep xrefs within a folder under Cad in the project folder.
Use the AutoCAD command xref-bind to copy a referenced drawing into a drawing. You may use this
command for archiving or for sending out to consultants. When you bind an xref, a block and a block
reference is created in the drawing and the reference is discarded.
4.15 Purge and Audit
Please regularly purge and Audit your drawings, preferably on a daily basis. This keeps the drawing size
down and fixes any extraneous errors.
Ensure that the Plot style table: Kennedy 2017.ctb is used to plot all drawings. This will ensure all
lineweights are correct using the KENNEDY standard layer system.